So meldete 15 Jahre später Alexander Graham Bell () in den USA das erste Telefon zum Patent an. wurden in Berlin und Mülhausen im Elsass. Die Erfindung des Telefons geht auf mehrere Personen zurück. Wer hierbei als der wahre Im Telefon von Reis erfolgte die Wandlung von Tönen zu Stromänderungen mittels des Prinzips des Alexander Graham Bell kam im Laufe dieser Ereignisse in den Besitz von Meuccis Materialien und Unterlagen. Als Meucci Es waren weniger seine technischen Fähigkeiten, die Alexander Graham Bell am Februar das Patent für das Telefon einbrachten.
Oktober 1861: Die Erfindung des TelefonsEs waren weniger seine technischen Fähigkeiten, die Alexander Graham Bell am Februar das Patent für das Telefon einbrachten. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm. In der Folge entstand die Bell Telephone Company, die sich später zum weltweit.
Graham Bell Telefon Menu pandu arah VideoFrom Alexander Graham Bell to the iPhone 6 - the history of the telephone in five objects
While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.
However, in May , Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland.
Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly.
Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,  [N 7] conclude all of his brother's affairs Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp ,  and join his father and mother in setting out for the " New World ".
Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.
In , year-old Bell travelled with his parents and his brother's widow, Caroline Margaret Ottaway,  to Paris, Ontario ,  to stay with Thomas Henderson, a Baptist minister and family friend.
The property consisted of an orchard, large farmhouse, stable, pigsty, hen-house, and a carriage house , which bordered the Grand River.
At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house near to what he called his "dreaming place",  a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.
For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.
After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound. Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fuller , principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf ,  in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son.
Travelling to Boston in April , Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors. Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".
Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher. Teaching his father's system, in October , Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students.
She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges".
Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak known as oralism  and not use sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.
During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.
He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.
Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".
Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.
Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in.
Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,   [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.
Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".
Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives.
When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.
In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!
However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.
On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.
That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U. Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.
On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office.
There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.
Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.
Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.
Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr.
Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,  Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,  Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment,  to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.
He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.
He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.
In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.
He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D.
Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.
Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.
He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.
On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.
He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.
This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.
This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.
The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.
Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.
A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.
One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".
These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".
The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Selepas tempoh yang singkat tinggal di Ontario, Bells berpindah ke Boston, di mana mereka ditubuhkan amalan ucapan-terapi yang pakar dalam mengajar kanak-kanak pekak untuk bercakap.
Salah seorang penuntutnya Alexander Graham Bell adalah satu Helen Keller muda, yang apabila mereka bertemu bukan sahaja buta dan pekak tetapi juga tidak dapat bercakap.
Walaupun bekerja dengan orang pekak akan kekal sebagai sumber utama Bell pendapatan, beliau terus melanjutkan pengajian sendiri bunyi di sebelah.
Rasa ingin tahu saintifik tanpa henti Bell membawa kepada ciptaan photophone , untuk penambahbaikan komersial ketara dalam pikap Thomas Edison, dan untuk pembangunan mesin terbang sendiri hanya enam tahun selepas Wright Brothers melancarkan pesawat mereka di Kitty Hawk.
Sebagai Presiden James Garfield meletakkan mati peluru pembunuh itu pada tahun , Bell tergesa-gesa mencipta pengesan logam dalam percubaan tidak berjaya untuk mencari slug yang membawa maut.
The telegraf dan telefon kedua-dua sistem elektrik berasaskan dawai, dan kejayaan Alexander Graham Bell dengan telefon datang sebagai hasil langsung daripada usahanya untuk meningkatkan telegraf.
Apabila dia mula bereksperimen dengan isyarat elektrik, telegraf telah menjadi cara ditubuhkan komunikasi untuk kira-kira 30 tahun. Walaupun sistem yang sangat berjaya, telegraf pada dasarnya terhad kepada menerima dan menghantar satu mesej pada satu masa.
Pada Oktober , penyelidikan Bell telah berkembang ke tahap di mana dia boleh memaklumkan bakal bapa mertuanya, Boston wakil Gardiner Greene Hubbard, kira-kira kemungkinan telegraf berbilang.
Hubbard, yang marah kawalan mutlak kemudian dikenakan oleh Western Union Telegraph Syarikat, serta-merta melihat potensi untuk berbuka seperti monopoli dan memberikan Bell sokongan kewangan yang diperlukan.
Bell meneruskan kerja-kerja mengenai telegraf berganda, tetapi dia tidak memberitahu Hubbard bahawa dia dan Thomas Watson, seorang juruelektrik yang kecil, yang perkhidmatan beliau telah menyenaraikan, juga telah membangunkan satu alat yang akan menghantar ucapan elektrik.
Manakala Watson bekerja pada telegraf harmonik desakannya yang mendesak Hubbard dan penyokong lain, Bell diam-diam bertemu Mac dengan Joseph Henry , pengarah dihormati Institusi Smithsonian, yang mendengar idea Bell untuk telefon dan memberikan kata-kata yang menggalakkan.
Didorong oleh pandangan yang positif Henry, Bell dan Watson terus kerja mereka. Pada bulan Jun tahun sasaran mewujudkan alat yang akan menghantar elektrik ucapan adalah kira-kira untuk direalisasikan.
In , he hastily constructed a metal detector as a way to try and locate a bullet lodged in President James Garfield after an assassination attempt.
He would later improve this and produce a device called a telephone probe, which would make a telephone receiver click when it touched metal. And when Bell's newborn son, Edward, died from respiratory problems, he responded by designing a metal vacuum jacket that would facilitate breathing.
The apparatus was a forerunner of the iron lung used in the s to aid polio victims. Other ideas he dabbled in included inventing the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems and conducting experiments with energy recycling and alternative fuels.
Bell also worked on methods of removing salt from seawater. These interests may be considered minor activities compared to the time and effort he put into making advances in manned flight technology.
By the s, Bell had begun experimenting with propellers and kites, which led him to apply the concept of the tetrahedron a solid figure with four triangular faces to kite design as well as to create a new form of architecture.
McCurdy, four young engineers with the common goal of creating airborne vehicles. By , the group had produced four powered aircraft, the best of which, the Silver Dart, made a successful powered flight in Canada on February 23, Although working with the deaf would remain Bell's principal source of income, Bell continued to pursue his own studies of sound throughout his life.
Bell's unceasing scientific curiosity led to the invention of the photophone , a device that allowed for the transmission of sound on a beam of light.
Sejak awal lagi, Bell menunjukkan sifat sensitif dan bakat bagi seni, syair dan muzik yang diwarisi daripada ibunya. Tanpa latihan rasmi, dia menguasai piano dan menjadi pemain piano keluarganya.
Keluarganya telah lama berkecimpung dengan mengajar "elocution" : datuknya, Alexander Bell, di London , bapa saudaranya di Dublin , dan bapanya, di Edinburgh, kesemuanya "elocutionists".
Bapanya menerbitkan pelbagai karya berkenaan tajuk tersebut, beberapa darinya masih dikenali ramai, terutama The Standard Elocutionist  Mackay , , yang muncul di Edinburgh pada The Standard Elocutionist muncul dalam edisi British dan dijual lebih suku juta di Amerika Syarikat sahaja.
Dalam treatise ini, bapanya menjelaskan kaedahnya mengajar orang yang bisu dan pekak "deaf-mute" sebagaimana mereka dikenali semasa itu untuk menghasilkan perkataan dan membaca pergerakan bibir orang lain bagi menafsir erti.
Pemeliharaan CS1: Format tanggal link. Alexander Graham Bell. National Geographic Society. By , Bell, with the help of his partner Thomas Watson, had come up with a simple receiver that could turn electricity into sound.
On March 7, , Bell was granted his telephone patent. Watson, come here. I want you. In , the U. In addition to the telephone, Bell worked on hundreds of projects throughout his career and received patents in various fields.
Some of his other notable inventions were:. In , Bell was awarded the French Volta Prize, and with the money, he founded a facility devoted to scientific discovery, the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.
Bell invented numerous techniques to help teach speech to the deaf and even worked with well-known author and activist Helen Keller.
He also helped launch Science magazine , and from to served as president of the National Geographic Society.
In , Bell was given the controversial title of honorary president at the Second International Congress of Eugenics.
Later in his life, Bell focused on aviation and hydrofoil inventions.Zugute kam ihm dabei, dass das Patentamt einige Jahre Em 2021 Gruppen Punkte die Anforderung hatte fallen lassen, mit dem Patentantrag ein funktionierendes Modell einzureichen. Ihr Standort: BR. Er gilt als der erste Gruppe Em 2021, der aus der Erfindung des Telefons Kapital geschlagen hat, indem er Ideen seiner Vorgänger zur Marktreife weiterentwickelte.