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While not actually mentioned in the rules of Go at least in simpler rule sets, such as those of New Zealand and the U.
Examples of eyes marked. The black groups at the top of the board are alive, as they have at least two eyes. The black groups at the bottom are dead as they only have one eye.
The point marked a is a false eye. When a group of stones is mostly surrounded and has no options to connect with friendly stones elsewhere, the status of the group is either alive, dead or unsettled.
A group of stones is said to be alive if it cannot be captured, even if the opponent is allowed to move first.
Conversely, a group of stones is said to be dead if it cannot avoid capture, even if the owner of the group is allowed the first move.
Otherwise, the group is said to be unsettled: the defending player can make it alive or the opponent can kill it, depending on who gets to play first.
An eye is an empty point or group of points surrounded by one player's stones. If the eye is surrounded by Black stones, White cannot play there unless such a play would take Black's last liberty and capture the Black stones.
Such a move is forbidden according to the suicide rule in most rule sets, but even if not forbidden, such a move would be a useless suicide of a White stone.
If a Black group has two eyes, White can never capture it because White cannot remove both liberties simultaneously. If Black has only one eye, White can capture the Black group by playing in the single eye, removing Black's last liberty.
Such a move is not suicide because the Black stones are removed first. In the "Examples of eyes" diagram, all the circled points are eyes.
The two black groups in the upper corners are alive, as both have at least two eyes. The groups in the lower corners are dead, as both have only one eye.
The group in the lower left may seem to have two eyes, but the surrounded empty point marked a is not actually an eye. White can play there and take a black stone.
Such a point is often called a false eye. There is an exception to the requirement that a group must have two eyes to be alive, a situation called seki or mutual life.
Where different colored groups are adjacent and share liberties, the situation may reach a position when neither player wants to move first, because doing so would allow the opponent to capture; in such situations therefore both players' stones remain on the board in seki.
Neither player receives any points for those groups, but at least those groups themselves remain living, as opposed to being captured.
In the "Example of seki mutual life " diagram, the circled points are liberties shared by both a black and a white group.
Neither player wants to play on a circled point, because doing so would allow the opponent to capture. All the other groups in this example, both black and white, are alive with at least two eyes.
Seki can result from an attempt by one player to invade and kill a nearly settled group of the other player. In Go, tactics deal with immediate fighting between stones, capturing and saving stones, life, death and other issues localized to a specific part of the board.
Larger issues, not limited to only part of the board, are referred to as strategy , and are covered in their own section. There are several tactical constructs aimed at capturing stones.
Recognizing the possibility that stones can be captured using these techniques is an important step forward. A ladder. Black cannot escape unless the ladder connects to black stones further down the board that will intercept with the ladder.
The most basic technique is the ladder. Unless the pattern runs into friendly stones along the way, the stones in the ladder cannot avoid capture.
Experienced players recognize the futility of continuing the pattern and play elsewhere. The presence of a ladder on the board does give a player the option to play a stone in the path of the ladder, thereby threatening to rescue their stones, forcing a response.
Such a move is called a ladder breaker and may be a powerful strategic move. In the diagram, Black has the option of playing a ladder breaker.
Another technique to capture stones is the so-called net ,  also known by its Japanese name, geta. This refers to a move that loosely surrounds some stones, preventing their escape in all directions.
An example is given in the adjacent diagram. It is generally better to capture stones in a net than in a ladder, because a net does not depend on the condition that there are no opposing stones in the way, nor does it allow the opponent to play a strategic ladder breaker.
A snapback. Although Black can capture the white stone by playing at the circled point, the resulting shape for Black has only one liberty at 1 , thus White can then capture the three black stones by playing at 1 again snapback.
A third technique to capture stones is the snapback. An example can be seen on the right. As with the ladder, an experienced player does not play out such a sequence, recognizing the futility of capturing only to be captured back immediately.
One of the most important skills required for strong tactical play is the ability to read ahead. Some of the strongest players of the game can read up to 40 moves ahead even in complicated positions.
As explained in the scoring rules, some stone formations can never be captured and are said to be alive, while other stones may be in the position where they cannot avoid being captured and are said to be dead.
Much of the practice material available to players of the game comes in the form of life and death problems, also known as tsumego. Tsumego are considered an excellent way to train a player's ability at reading ahead,  and are available for all skill levels, some posing a challenge even to top players.
In situations when the Ko rule applies, a ko fight may occur. If the opponent does respond to the ko threat, the situation on the board has changed, and the prohibition on capturing the ko no longer applies.
Thus the player who made the ko threat may now recapture the ko. Their opponent is then in the same situation and can either play a ko threat as well, or concede the ko by simply playing elsewhere.
If a player concedes the ko, either because they do not think it important or because there are no moves left that could function as a ko threat, they have lost the ko, and their opponent may connect the ko.
Instead of responding to a ko threat, a player may also choose to ignore the threat and connect the ko.
The choice of when to respond to a threat and when to ignore it is a subtle one, which requires a player to consider many factors, including how much is gained by connecting, how much is lost by not responding, how many possible ko threats both players have remaining, what the optimal order of playing them is, and what the size —points lost or gained—of each of the remaining threats is.
Frequently, the winner of the ko fight does not connect the ko but instead captures one of the chains that constituted their opponent's side of the ko.
Strategy deals with global influence, interaction between distant stones, keeping the whole board in mind during local fights, and other issues that involve the overall game.
It is therefore possible to allow a tactical loss when it confers a strategic advantage. Novices often start by randomly placing stones on the board, as if it were a game of chance.
An understanding of how stones connect for greater power develops, and then a few basic common opening sequences may be understood.
Learning the ways of life and death helps in a fundamental way to develop one's strategic understanding of weak groups. The strategy involved can become very abstract and complex.
High-level players spend years improving their understanding of strategy, and a novice may play many hundreds of games against opponents before being able to win regularly.
In the opening of the game, players usually play and gain territory in the corners of the board first, as the presence of two edges makes it easier for them to surround territory and establish their stones.
Players tend to play on or near the star point during the opening. Playing nearer to the edge does not produce enough territory to be efficient, and playing further from the edge does not safely secure the territory.
In the opening, players often play established sequences called joseki , which are locally balanced exchanges;  however, the joseki chosen should also produce a satisfactory result on a global scale.
It is generally advisable to keep a balance between territory and influence. Which of these gets precedence is often a matter of individual taste.
The middle phase of the game is the most combative, and usually lasts for more than moves. During the middlegame, the players invade each other's territories, and attack formations that lack the necessary two eyes for viability.
Such groups may be saved or sacrificed for something more significant on the board. However, matters may be more complex yet, with major trade-offs, apparently dead groups reviving, and skillful play to attack in such a way as to construct territories rather than kill.
The end of the middlegame and transition to the endgame is marked by a few features. Near the end of a game, play becomes divided into localized fights that do not affect each other,  with the exception of ko fights, where before the central area of the board related to all parts of it.
No large weak groups are still in serious danger. Moves can reasonably be attributed some definite value, such as 20 points or fewer, rather than simply being necessary to compete.
Both players set limited objectives in their plans, in making or destroying territory, capturing or saving stones. These changing aspects of the game usually occur at much the same time, for strong players.
In brief, the middlegame switches into the endgame when the concepts of strategy and influence need reassessment in terms of concrete final results on the board.
In China, Go was considered one of the four cultivated arts of the Chinese scholar gentleman , along with calligraphy , painting and playing the musical instrument guqin  In ancient times the rules of go were passed on verbally, rather than being written down.
Go was introduced to Korea sometime between the 5th and 7th centuries CE, and was popular among the higher classes. Sunjang baduk became the main variant played in Korea until the end of the 19th century, when the current version was reintroduced from Japan.
It became popular at the Japanese imperial court in the 8th century,  and among the general public by the 13th century.
In , Tokugawa Ieyasu re-established Japan's unified national government. Despite its widespread popularity in East Asia, Go has been slow to spread to the rest of the world.
Although there are some mentions of the game in western literature from the 16th century forward, Go did not start to become popular in the West until the end of the 19th century, when German scientist Oskar Korschelt wrote a treatise on the ancient Han Chinese game.
In , Edward Lasker learned the game while in Berlin. Two years later, in , the German Go Association was founded. World War II put a stop to most Go activity, since it was a game coming from Japan, but after the war, Go continued to spread.
Both astronauts were awarded honorary dan ranks by the Nihon Ki-in. In Go, rank indicates a player's skill in the game. Traditionally, ranks are measured using kyu and dan grades,  a system also adopted by many martial arts.
More recently, mathematical rating systems similar to the Elo rating system have been introduced. Dan grades abbreviated d are considered master grades, and increase from 1st dan to 7th dan.
First dan equals a black belt in eastern martial arts using this system. The difference among each amateur rank is one handicap stone.
For example, if a 5k plays a game with a 1k, the 5k would need a handicap of four stones to even the odds. Top-level amateur players sometimes defeat professionals in tournament play.
These ranks are separate from amateur ranks. Tournament and match rules deal with factors that may influence the game but are not part of the actual rules of play.
Such rules may differ between events. Rules that influence the game include: the setting of compensation points komi , handicap, and time control parameters.
Rules that do not generally influence the game are: the tournament system, pairing strategies, and placement criteria. Common tournament systems used in Go include the McMahon system ,  Swiss system , league systems and the knockout system.
Tournaments may combine multiple systems; many professional Go tournaments use a combination of the league and knockout systems.
A game of Go may be timed using a game clock. Formal time controls were introduced into the professional game during the s and were controversial.
It is also possible to capture your opponent's stones by completely surrounding them. Players take turns, placing one of their stones on a vacant point at each turn, with Black playing first.
Note that stones are placed on the intersections of the lines rather than in the squares and once played stones are not moved.
However they may be captured, in which case they are removed from the board, and kept by the capturing player as prisoners.
At the end of the game, the players count one point for each vacant point inside their own territory, and one point for every stone they have captured.
The player with the larger total of territory plus prisoners is the winner. Diagram 1 shows the position at the end of a game on a 9 by 9 board, during which Black captured one white stone at a.
Black has surrounded 15 points of territory, 10 in the lower right corner and 5 towards the top of the board. Black's territory includes the point a formerly occupied by the white stone Black has captured.
Adding this prisoner, Black has a total of 16 points. Diagram 2 shows three isolated white stones with their liberties marked by crosses.
Stones which are on the edge of the board have fewer liberties than those in the centre of the board. A single stone on the side has three liberties, and a stone in the corner has only two liberties.
Diagram 3 shows the same three stones of Diagram 2 each with only one liberty left and therefore subject to capture on Black's next turn.
Each of these white stones is said to be in atari, meaning they are about to be captured. Diagram 4 shows the position which would arise if Black went on to play at b in Diagram 3.
Black has taken the captured stone from the board, and in a real game would keep it as a prisoner. The same remarks would apply to the other two white stones, should Black play at c or d in Diagram 4.
Stones occupying adjacent points constitute a solidly connected string. Two examples of such solidly connected strings of stones are shown in Diagram 5.
It is important to remember that only stones which are horizontally or vertically adjacent are solidly connected; diagonals do not count as connections.
Thus, for example, the two marked black stones in the top left of Diagram 5 are two separate strings, not a single one. Several strings close together, which belong to the same player, are often described as a group.
So these two strings form a group. As far as capturing is concerned, a string of stones is treated as a single unit.
As with isolated stones, a string is captured when all of its liberties are occupied by enemy stones. In Diagram 6 the strings of Diagram 5 have both been reduced to just one liberty.
Note that the black string in the top right is not yet captured because of the internal liberty at f. The concept of Go is simpler to grasp however it is far more complex.
The simplicity is that all the game pieces are the same just black and white. Unlike chess the Go pieces do not mover about the board, there is also a balanced handicap system that allows a beginner to compete with an advanced player.
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How you found the violation and any other useful info. Submit Cancel. System Requirements Minimum Your device must meet all minimum requirements to open this product OS Windows 10 version Recommended Your device should meet these requirements for the best experience OS Windows 10 versionThe general strategy is to expand one's territory, attack the opponent's weak groups groups that can be killedand always stay mindful of the Pokerstars Bonus status of one's own groups. State sponsorship, allowing players to dedicate themselves full-time to study of the game, and Western Fairgrounds London competition between individual houses resulted in a significant increase in the Langley Cascades of play. While differences between sets of rules may have moderate strategic consequences on occasion, they do not change the character of the game. Board Size. Welcome to COSUMI! On this site, you can play 5×5 to 19×19 Go (a.k.a. Igo, Baduk, and Weiqi), which is a well-known ancient board game. If you do not know how to play Go, please look at Wikipedia (Rules of go) first, and then try a 5×5 game that is just right for a beginner like you. Enjoy! The board game go has been in the news worldwide because a Go game master champion played a computer, with the computer winning more matches than the champion. Since each move opens up numerous possibilities the computer can make the necessary calculations it would take for a favorable outcome faster than a human. Online Go game. ⚫ ⚪ Live games, tournaments, multiple board sizes to choose from. Join our community of enthusiastic Go players. Board Size Welcome to COSUMI! On this site, you can play 5×5 to 19×19 Go (a.k.a. Igo, Baduk, and Weiqi), which is a well-known ancient board game. If you do not know how to play Go, please look at Wikipedia (Rules of go) first, and then try a 5×5 game that is just right for a beginner like you. The object of the game of go is, in rough terms, to control more territory at the end of the game than one's opponent does. Elements of the game Players. Rule 1. Go is a game between two players, called Black and White. The choice of black or white is traditionally done by chance between players of even strength. Go is ancient board game which takes simple elements: line and circle, black and white, stone and wood, combines them with simple rules and generates subtleties which have enthralled players for millennia. Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent. The game was invented in China more than 2, years ago and is believed to be the oldest board game continuously played to the present day. Go Board Game This fascinating game of strategy can be traced back several thousand years in the Orient and is gaining popularity in the West. Players take turns positioning their stones (game pieces) on the game board (size of the board may vary). Once a stone is laid on the playing board they can no longer be moved.